Electricity Trading and Hedging - Risk Books
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Electricity Trading and Hedging

By Edward N. Krapels


A research report looking at the range of issues facing firms wishing to hedge in the new power markets.

Publish date: 1 May 2000

Availability: In stock


Book description

  • Shows decision-makers how they can build a rationale for hedging and trading in the new power markets in the US and Europe
  • Covers breaking market issues such as the role and risks of trading power on the internet and the implications of the July 1999 power price spike
  • Explains how the electricity markets work, offers market analysis, discusses hedging and trading in electricity markets and offers conclusions

Book details

Publish date
1 May 2000

Author biography

Edward N. Krapels

Table of contents





What is price volatility?

The fundamentals of electricity: drivers of electricity demand

The fundamentals of electricity: supply and generation capacity

Joining demand and supply: the dispatch process underderegulation

What is risk management in electricity markets?

How Electricity Markets Work

Failure of futures markets to dominate

Varied menu of traded assets

Transmission services and traded power

The menu of electricity transactions

Discos and RFPs for standard offer service

The new long-term contract

Medium and short-term contracts

The instruments of electricity hedging: forwards, futures,options, weather derivatives and insurance


Exchange-traded versus OTC options markets

Over-the-counter and through the Web

Weather derivatives


Blended instruments

Volatility issues

The results: the hours of terror, weeks of boredom

The gas crack

The markets for capacity and ancillary services



Market Analysis

Inputs to electricity price analysis

Demand for electricity

Weather forecasting

Capacity analysis: outages, additions and constraints ongeneration and transmission

Input fuel


Natural gas

Integrating the inputs: the dispatch process

Electricity market depth, liquidity, herding behaviour and pricevolatility

The heat event of June 7-8, 1999

Herding behaviour

Are margins mean-reverting?

Hedging and Trading in Electricity Markets

Hedging instruments

Purposes of hedging electricity

Volatility reduction

Hedge gain maximisation and other extensions of risk management

Hedgemasters and portfolios

Types of hedging and trading programmes

Trading examples

Forward market strategies

Pure options strategies

Selling options

Options combinations

Hedging by condition: backwardised and contango markets

Self-insurance with finite risk instruments

Weather derivatives


Winners and losers

Energy consumers

Conclusions: Transition, Adaptation, Concentration

First conclusion: second decision must be better than the first

Second conclusion: cannot avoid power trading

Third conclusion: develop new energy products

And in the end 114


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